Alphabet and pronunciationEdit
There are 24 letters. Each letter corresponds to a sound and each sound to a letter.
a b c d e f g h i j ʒ k l m n o p r s t u v w z
- a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in Italian or Spanish : casa, solo, vino, luna, pepe
- c is pronounced as «sh» shut
- ʒ is pronounced as «s» in pleasure*
- g is always pronounced as in give
- r is rolled as in Spanish
- j is pronounced as «y» in boy or yoghurt
- s is pronounced as in save or class
All the other letters are pronounced as in English
* This letter corresponds to the international phonetic symbol [ʒ] for the French, Portuguese, Rumanian sound [j] (= s in measure).
- Ai, aj are pronounced as y in by, why : ex : aj, paj, vaiz
- Ei, ej are pronounced as ay in pay, say ex : pej, lej, bej
- Ij is pronounced as French ille in fille ex. bij, cijo, perij
- Oi, oj are pronounced as oy in boy, toy ex : coj, foj, soin
- Ui, uj are pronounced oo + y as French ouille in mouille ex : duj, muj, ruin
- Au, aw are pronounced as ow in cow, how ex : Paul, paw, bawo
- Ou, ow are pronounced as ow in low, o in nose ex : goul
- Eu, ew are pronounced as eu in Italian or Spanish Europa ex : Europa
The Uropi verbal system can be summed up with 3 formulas:(o – an - en), (Ø – ì – ev) and (ve-o, se-an, av-en, vid-en).
Three verbal formsEdit
-o -an –en = Infinitive & Participles
- -O = Infinitive. Ex : skrivo, liso, sopo, jedo = to write, to read, to sleep, to eat
- -AN = Present participle. Ex : san, skrivan, flan, sopan = being, writing, blowing, sleeping
- -EN = Past participle. Ex : lisen, jeden, flen, opren = read, eaten, blown, open
Three simple tensesEdit
Ø – ì – ev = Present, Past, Conditional
- Ø (no ending or -e ending when pronouncing is impossible) = Present. Ex: skriv, lis, sop, jed = write(s), read(s), sleep(s), eat(s), ''se, ste, fle, opre = is, stand, blow, open
- -Ì = Past. Ex: sì, avì, oprì, sopì = was, had, opened, slept
- -EV = Conditional. Ex : sev, avev, lisev, venev = would be, have, read, come
So (to be), Avo (to have), Vido (to get) + 1 particle: Ve
- VE-O (ve + infinitive) = Future. Ex: ve so, ve avo, ve sopo = will be, will have, will sleep
- SE-AN (to be + present participle) = The durative Form (progressive or continuous). It is used to insist on the duration, the continuity of an action (= to be + Ving). Ex: se lisan, se sopan = is reading, is sleeping
- AV-EN (to have + past participle) = past tenses.
- Av-en = Present Perfect. Ex : av jeden, av venen = has eaten, has come
- Avo + -en is also used to form the pluperfect (avì-en. Ex: avì sopen = had slept)
- and the past conditional: Avev-en, ex.: avev aven = would have had)
- 'VID-EN (to get + past participle) = Passive. Ex: 'Vid jeden, vidì tuden, ve vido opren = is (gets) eaten, got (was) killed, will be open.
Personal pronouns and possessivesEdit
|i = I||ma = me||mo = to me||mi = my|
|tu = you (singular)||ta = you (object)||to = to you||ti = your|
|he = he||ha = him||ho = to him||hi = his|
|ce = she||ca = her||co = to her||ci = her|
|je = it||ja = it||jo = to it||jo = its|
|nu = we||na = us||no = to us||ni = our|
|vu = you (plur)||va = you||vo = to you||vi = your|
|lu = they||la = them||lo = to them||li = their|
We should add the indefinite pronoun UN = one, and the reflexive pronoun SIA = oneself (sio = to oneself, possessive siu = one’s) .
The verb remains the same whatever the person.
- Affirmative : personal pronoun + verb
- Interrogative : verb + personal pronoun
- Negative : personal pronoun + verb + NE
Ex : I skriv, he lisì, ce ve sopo = I write, he read, she will sleep
Piv tu ?, Venì he ? Zavev lu ? = Do you drink ? Did he come ? Would they know ?
Nu vol ne, vu av ne vizen = We don’t want, you haven’t seen
De beb sì sopan, je v’ne liuvo = The baby was sleeping, it won’t rain
Avev vu iten za ? Tu jed ne = Would you have gone there ? You don’t eat
In Uropi, there are 2 articles.
- The definite article de = the, for all nouns. Ex : de man, de mata, de kat, de hase = the man, the mother, the cat, the houses.
- The indefinite article u, un (in front of a vowel) = a, an ; doesn’t exist in the plural. Ex : u kun, u kuna, un ovel, mane, kate = a dog, a bitch, a bird, men, cats
In Uropi there are 2 types of nouns : the nouns ending in a consonant and the nouns ending in -a
- All masculine nouns end in a consonant. They designate only male sexed beings and correspond to the pronoun he = he.
- Ex : man, kun, pater, frat, kwal, doktor = man, dog, father, brother, horse, doctor
- All feminine nouns end in -a. Ex : ʒina, kata, mata, sesta, kwala = woman, she-cat, mother, sister, mare. They designate only female sexed beings and correspond to the pronoun ce = she.
- Feminine nouns can be formed by adding –a to masculine nouns ex : kat > kata
- All the other nouns are neuter ; they correspond to the pronoun je = it. They end either in a consonant or in –a. Ex : has, tag, strad, luc, vag, natùr, kina, teatra, dia, sta, vima= house, roof, street, light, car, nature, cinema, theatre, day, place, winter.
- The nouns ending in a consonant take an' -E.
- Ex : hase, mane, vage, kune, frate = houses, men, cars, dogs, brothers
- The nouns ending in -a take an -S.
- Ex : katas, kinas, tiotas, dias, aktoras = she-cats, cinemas, aunts, days, actresses.
It is the possessive phrase ('s). It is the last trace of the old Indo-european declension system; it remains in most of the present European languages: Slavic, Baltic, Germanic languages (except Dutch), Greek, Rumanian, Albanian, Armenian, etc.
- The nouns ending in a consonant take an -i, in the singular, -is in the plural.
- Ex : mani = man’s, vagi = car-, of a car, kuni = dog’s, kwalis = horses’, de kunis = the dogs’, de tage de hasis = the roofs of the houses, de kun mi patri = my father’s dog, de luce de vagis = the lights of the cars.
- For the nouns in –a, the –a is replaced by -u in the singular, -us in the plural.
- Ex: veste ʒinus = women’s clothes, de fram ti sestu = your sister’s friend, un aktora kinu = a film star (cinema actress) , de mata mi kuzinu = my cousin’s mother
- The genitive can be used to form adjectives from nouns.
- Ex : noc = nuit > noci = night-, nightly, noci ovel = night bird, diu fafìl = (day) butterfly, man > mani = man’s, masculine, mani veste = men’s clothes, mani moda = men’s fashion
- The genitive is used to form compounds.
- Ex: vag + luc > vagilùc = «car light », headlight, vod = water + fal = fall > vodifàl = waterfall, strad = street + lamp = lamp > stradilàmp = streetlamp, vima = winter + sport > vimusporte = winter sports, kina + stel = étoile > kinustèl = film star
- a to
- ane without
- be at
- berù behind
- do towards
- dod since
- for before
- gon against
- in in, into
- instà instead
- intra between
- ki with
- obte in spite of
- ov about
- po for
- pos after
- pro in front of
- slogan according to
- su on
- sube above
- tis till
- tra across
- trawan during
- tru through
- ude under
- us out of
- usim except
- uve over
In Uropi adjectives are invariable ; They are always placed in front of the noun.
Ex : u jun man, mi seni mata, nar kate, 'de somu dias, u famos aktora' = a young man, my old mother, black cats, the summer days, a famous actress.
- Greater degree: maj… te = more…, …er than. Ex : ce se maj jun te i = she is younger than me (I)
- Lesser degree: min… te = less… than, not so… as. Ex : vu se min alti te he = you are not so tall as him (he)
- Equal degree: os… te = as… as. Ex : he se os glaj te tu = he is as merry as you
- Greater degree: de maj… ' = the most… (or 'de ' + adjective + -es). Ex : di flor se de maj bel, de beles = this flower is the most beautiful
- Lesser degree: de min… = the least… Ex : he se de min seni '''od tale = he is the least old of all.
- 0 nul
- 1 un
- 2 du
- 3 tri
- 4 kwer
- 5 pin
- 6 ses
- 7 sep
- 8 oc
- 9 nev
- 10 des
- 11 desùn
- 12 desdù
- 20 dudes
- 30 trides
- 100 sunte
- 200 dusunte
- 1,000 tilie
- 3,000 tritilie
- 1,000,000 un miliòn
- 1,000,000,000 un miliàrd
Ex : 574 = pinsunte sesdes kwer
2 350 819 = du milione trisunte pindes tilie ocsunte desnèv
Ordinal numbers Edit
Pri = 1st, duj = 2nd, trij = 3rd, kweri = 4th, pini = 6th, sesi = 6th, sepi = 7th, etc.
Ka hor se je ? = What time is it ?
Je s’ un (hor) = It’s one o’clock
Je s’ midià = It’s twelve o’clock (noon)
Je s’ du id dudes = It’s twenty past two
Je s’ midià id des = it’s ten past twelve
Je s’ tri min des = it’s ten to three
Je s’oc min kwert = it’s a quarter to eight
Je s’ kwer id mij = it’s half past four
Je s’ nev id kwert = it’s a quarter past nine
Be ka hor inìz de konsèrt ? = What time is the concert ?
Be dudes id mij = At half past eight pm
- Hor = hour
- minùt = minute
- sekùnd = second
The days of the week
- Lundia = Monday
- Mardia = Tuesday
- Mididia = Wednesday
- Zusdia = Thursday
- Wendia = Friday
- Sabadia = Saturday
- Soldia = Sunday
The months of the year
- Janvar = January
- Febrar = February
- Mars = March
- Aprìl = Avril
- Maj = May
- Ʒun = June
- Ʒul = July
- Agùst = Augus
- September = September
- Oktober = October
- November = November
- December = December
Odia se 26i (dudes sesi) September 2005 (dutilie pin) = Today is 26 September 2005
Be pri Maj = on 1st May, be 11i (desuni) November = on 11th November
- Jesta = yesterday
- Odia = today
- Domòr = tomorrow
- Forjesta = day before yesterday
- Posdomòr = day after tomorrow
- Tri dias for = three days ago
- In tri dias = in three days
Verna = spring, soma = summer, otèm = autumn, vima = winter
Origin of Uropi wordsEdit
Uropi words stem from the common Indo-European roots which gave birth to most of the words used today in nearly all European languages (apart from Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian.)
For example the root sāwel* = sun > Uropi sol can be found in Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, English, German, Dutch, Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian…, Lithuanian, Lettish, Greek, Welsh, Breton, + Sanskrit and Hindi. The root mātār* = mother > Uropi mata can be found in Greek, Latin, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, English, German, Dutch, Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian…, Lithuanian, Lettish, Albanian, Armenian, Gaelic, Breton, + Sanskrit, Hindi, Farsi (Persian), etc… Here are a few examples of Indo-European roots which gave birth to basic Uropi vocabulary:
Pətēr* = father > U. pater, bhrātār* = brother > U. frat, sūnús* = son > U. son, mori* = sea > U. mar, snighws* = snow > U. snev, stāyō* = to stand > U. sto, sed-* = to sit > U. sedo, leghmi* = to lie > U. leʒo, gwīwō* = to live > U. ʒivo, mer-* = to die > U. moro, mēns* = month > U. mon, dyēus* = day > U. dia, édmi* = to eat > U. jedo, pibō = to drink > U. pivo, gwous* = ox > U. gov, kwōn = dog > U. kun, etc. Uropi gathers the terms which are common to most European languages (Indo-European roots, international words, borrowings, calques, etc.)
It is the greatest common denominator between European languages.
A few simple sentencesEdit
Piv tu ne bir ? Don’t you drink beer ?
Di se bel voke ! These are fine words !
Di bib se Petri This book is Peter’s
I nud okle I need glasses
Tu staj be dom You stay at home
Mi sesta jeg pianò My sister plays the piano
He av ne mozen veno He couldn’t come
I se leʒan su ruk I’m lying on my back
Is verem se bel i v’ito pasìto If the weather is fine I’ll go for a walk
I av iten kopo u romàn I have gone and bought a novel
I ve diko ja vo domòr I’ll show it to you tomorrow
He pragì mo kamòl kostì de vin He asked me how much the wine cost
Un rekonì ha od dal He could be recognized from afar
Prefixes and suffixesEdit
- a- =
- to make + verb ex : veno = to come > aveno = to arrive. Ex : frajo = to fear > afrajo = to frighten
- an- = un-, -less (adjectives) ex : justi = fair > anjusti = unfair
- ap- = off, away ex : duto = to lead > apduto = to abduct, to kidnap
- be- = fixing, setting, seizing, holding ex : cepo = to seize > becepo = to receive
- di- = reverse action, un-, de- ex : deto = to do, dideto = to undo
- dis- = scattering, splitting, breaking up ex : part = part > disparto = to share
- for- = before, pre- , fore- ex : vizo = to see, forvizo = to foresee
- gon- = against, anti- counter- ex : dezo = to say > gondezo = to contradict
- in- = movement inward ex : muvo = move > inmuvo = move (feelings)
- intra- = reciprocity, inter- ex : mico = to mix, intramico = to intermix
- ko- = with, together, co-, con-, com- ex : varko = to work > kovarko = to collaborate
- niz- = down, downward ex : volto = to turn round > nizvolto = to capsize
- ob- = obstacle ex : falo = to fall > obfàl = accident
- od- = provenance, origin ex : veno = to come, odvenad = origin
- op- = up, upwards ex : duto = to lead > opduto = to educate
- pas- = passage, past ex : ito = to go > pasìto = to go for a walk
- per- = pejorative, deterioration, ex : curo = to swear > percuro = to betray one’s oath
- po- = goal, purpose ex : mozo = can, be able > pomozo = to enable
- pos- = after, following, post- ex : pero = to carry > pospero = to postpone
- pro- = movement forward ex : seto = to put > proseto = to introduce, present
- re- = repetition, re- ex : geno = to be born > regeno = to be born again
- ru- = back, backwards, return ex : voko = to speak > ruvoko = to answer
- su- = on, to add ex : flujo = to flow > suflujo = to flood
- sube- = above, over, super- ex : seto = to put > subeseto = to superpose
- tra- = crossing, transition, trans- ex : davo = to give > tradavo = to pass on, transmit
- tru- = through ex : vizo = to see > truvizi = see-through, transparent
- ude- = under, sub- ex : kut = skin > udekuti = subcutaneous
- us- = out, outside, ex- ex : kluzo = to close > uskluzo = to exclude
- uve- = over, too much ex : deto = to do > uvedeto = to overdo, exaggerate
- -ad = verbal or adjectival noun. Ex : akto = to act > aktad = action, bel > belad = beauty
- -id, -ij = nouns from adjectives in –i, -ic. Ex : veri = true > verid = truth, peric > perij = danger
- -or -a = agent. Ex : liso = to read > lisor, -a = reader
- -ìst, -a = specialist or supporter. Ex : dant = tooth > dantìst = dentist, komunìst, etc…
- -an, -a = in a certain state, inhabitants. Ex : pod = foot > podan = pedestrian, Roman = Roman
- -en, -a = undergoing. Ex : akulpo = to accuse > akulpen = accused
- -èl = object used to. Ex : koto = to cut > kotèl = knife
- -ar = bearing or containing. Ex : pir = pear > pirar = pear tree, ac > acar = ashtray
- -ia = place (for ex : countries, etc.) Ex : koko = to cook, kokia = kitchen, Francia = France